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There was perhaps an as yet unidentified native Etruscan word for the vase that pre-empted the adoption of amphora., Bennett's AMPHORA, which has a number of scribal variants.At a breakage site in Rome, Testaccio, close to the Tiber, the fragments, later wetted with Calcium hydroxide (Calce viva), remained to create a hill now named Monte Testaccio, 45 m (148 ft) high and more than 1 kilometre in circumference.
Amphorae often were marked with a variety of stamps, sgraffito, and inscriptions.
Ventris and Chadwick's translation is "carried on both sides." Amphorae varied greatly in height.
The largest stands as tall as 1.5 metres (5 ft) high, while some were fewer than 30 centimetres (12 in) high - the smallest were called amphoriskoi (literally "little amphorae"). There was a significant degree of standardisation in some variants; the wine amphora held a standard measure of about 39 litres (41 US qt), giving rise to the amphora quadrantal as a unit of measure in the Roman Empire.
Neck amphorae were commonly used in the early history of ancient Greece, but were gradually replaced by the one-piece type from around the 7th century BC onward.
Most were produced with a pointed base to allow upright storage by embedding in soft ground, such as sand.